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artillery battery civil war

artillery battery civil war

Battery "G", 2nd Illinois Light Artillery Regiment was an artillery battery from Illinois that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.The battery was organized at the end of December 1861. The caisson was also a two-wheeled carriage. Attempts were made to ensure that all six guns in a battery were of the same caliber, simplifying training and logistics. Civil War: Union Artillery. During the American Civil War, the artillery was organized into battalions, batteries, sections, and pieces of cannons with horses and men. Later, both naval and garrison carriages evolved traversing platforms and pivoting mounts. A reorganization of the Confederate artillery resulted in batteries being organized into battalions (versus the Union brigades) of three batteries each in the Western Theater of the war and generally four batteries each in the Eastern Theater of the war. This regiment was organized at Elmira to serve three years; it received its numerical designation October 16, 1861. It was mustered in under the command of Captain Asahel Kidder Bush. Smoothbores included howitzers and guns. In the 20th century the term was generally used for the company level sub-unit of an artillery branch including field, air-defence, anti-tank and position (coastal and frontier defences). Gen. William N. Pendleton, had considerable difficulty massing artillery for best effect because of this organization. The only known 24-pounders in use by the Army of Northern Virginia were in Woolfolk's Batteries (later Battalion) with two batteries of 4 pieces each. They could hit the end of a flour barrel more often than miss, unless the gunner got rattled. The most pervasive piece of artillery equipment was the horse. A Confederate battery was a bit smaller usually numbering only four cannons. B. Lyon Company, 1912. History The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 1st ed. However, the effective descriptions for the 3.67" gun are rifled 6-pounder or 12-pounder James rifle, while the 3.80" variant was known as the 14-pounder James rifle. Mustered in: June 15, 1861, as Company K of the 9th militia, later 83rd regiment of infantry. History The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 12th ed. History The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Civil War Morgan's Light Artillery. It had ample manufacturing capacity in Northern factories, and it had a well-trained and professional officer corps manning that branch of the service. This remained the standard main weapon layout for centuries, until the mid-19th century evolution of the naval rifle and revolving gun turrets came to displace fixed cannon. The period Ordnance and Gunnery work states that grape was excluded from "field and mountain services. Six-pounder bronze guns could be rifled to fire the projectiles invented by Charles Tillinghast James. [33], The table below lists the guns used by both armies at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. In the 20th century it varied between four and 12 for field artillery (even 16 if mortars), or even two pieces for very heavy pieces. The twelve-pound cannon "Napoleon" was the most popular smoothbore cannon used during the war. Coastal artillery sometimes had completely different organizational terms based on shore defence sector areas. The full battery was typically commanded by a captain. In addition to these vehicles, there were also battery supply wagons and portable forges that were used to service the guns. Some 6-pounder field guns were converted to 12- or 14-pounder James rifles. Administratively batteries were usually grouped in battalions, regiments or squadrons and these developed into tactical organisations. For muster in and out dates, see individual batteries. For your conveniance and perusal scroll down to view the different Manuals. Batteries also have sub-divisions, which vary across armies and periods but often translate into the English "platoon" or "troop" with individual ordnance systems called a "section" or "sub-section", where a section comprises two artillery pieces. Stephenson, Philip Daingerfield, and Nathaniel Cheairs Hughes. Confederate forces used both bore sizes during the war, which added to the complication of supplying the appropriate ammunition to its batteries. 1861. Each ammunition chest typically carried about 500 pounds (226.8 kg) of ammunition or supplies. In December 1860, Secretary of War John Floyd wrote, "the results of trials of rifled cannon and projectiles … indicates a superiority of James expanding projectiles for such cannon. With case the lethality of the balls and fragments came from the velocity of the projectile itself – the small burst charge only fragmented the case and dispersed the shrapnel. 151-152. It was not popular as an anti-infantry weapon. They suffered from disease, exhaustion from long marches—typically 16 miles (25.8 km) in 10 hours—and battle injuries. For smoothbores, the projectile was referred to as "spherical shell". Left state: January 14, 1862. To cut gas leakage to a minimum, a screw arrangement at the rear jacks the cylinder forward after positioning until a tight joint is effected between the front of the chamber in the cylinder and the breech end of the barrel. During the American Civil War, artillery batteries often consisted of six field pieces for the Union Army and four for the Confederate States Army, although this varied. However, Union and Confederate armies in the Western Theater continued to use both weapons. [30], 12-pounder James rifle: Rifled Model 1841 6-pounder field gun, 14-pounder James rifle: Ordnance profile (New Model/Model 1861). The lever when brought to the left as far as possible and swung to the right as much as the frame will permit turns the cylinder one fifth of a revolution and indexes the loaded chamber. Battery I 1st US Artillery 1860-63 SECOND LIEUTENANT (Chief of the line of Caissons) The junior officer of a battery had command of, and responsibility for all the caissons … Despite its effectiveness, many artillerymen were reluctant to use solid shot, preferring the explosive types of ordnance. [29] The total numbers of James rifles are uncertain, but the 1862 Ohio Quartermaster General annual report recorded 82 rifled bronze pieces (44 of those specified as "3.80 bore [James rifles]") out of a total of 162 of all field artillery types. While rifled cannon had much greater accuracy on average than smoothbores, the smoothbores had an advantage firing round shot relative to the bolts fired from rifled pieces. We would not have exchanged them for Parrott Rifles, or any other style of guns. The 2nd Battery, "Chase's Battery," also served in the Department of the Gulf . Such mounts were typically used in forts, or permanent defensive batteries, such as coastal artillery. They were beautiful, perfectly plain, tapering gracefully from muzzle to "reinforce" or "butt," without rings, or ornaments of any kind. Some batteries have been "dual-equipped" with two different types of gun or mortar, and taking whichever was more appropriate when they deployed for operations. B. Lyon Company, 1912. After the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Army of the Potomac's chief of artillery Henry J. Each gun in a battery used two six-horse teams (for normal field artillery; heavier guns required much larger teams): one team pulled a limber that attached to the trail of the gun to form a four-wheeled wagon of sorts; the other pulled a limber that attached to a caisson. Battery I, 1st US Artillery participates in the US Civil War from First Bull Run to Appomattox and suffers more casualties than any of the other batteries of the 1st Regiment during the war. Albany: J. The sizes of these groups are summarized below. The bore was hexagonal in cross-section, and the projectile was a long bolt that twisted to conform to the rifling. This versatile piece could utilize one of two carriages: a small carriage that could be drawn by a single animal or could be rapidly broken down to carry on the backs of pack animals, or a slightly larger prairie carriage to be drawn by two animals. Often, particularly as the war progressed, individual batteries were grouped into battalions under a major or colonel of artillery. 12th Independent Battery Light Artillery (Veteran) Civil War. In these armies the guns may be split into several fire units, which may deploy dispersed over an extended area or be concentrated into a single position. Canister shot was the deadliest type of ammunition, consisting of a thin metal container containing layers of lead or iron balls packed in sawdust. The limber was a two-wheeled carriage that carried an ammunition chest. Shells were more effective against troops behind obstacles or earthworks, and they were good for destroying wooden buildings by setting them on fire. It does not include siege artillery, use of artillery in fixed fortifications, or coastal or naval artillery. Conventional artillery as a vessel's battery has been largely displaced by guided missiles for both offensive and defensive actions. The M1841 24-pounder howitzers found use in the "reserve" batteries of the respective armies, but were gradually replaced over time with heavy rifled guns. The regulation 6-pounder, with a rifled bore (weight 884 pounds), carries a James projectile of about 13 pounds. This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 15:32. 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery History Wisconsin Civil War Regiment. The 20-pounder was the largest field gun used during the war, with the barrel alone weighing over 1,800 pounds (800 kg). In such batteries, the artillerymen were all mounted, in contrast to batteries in which the artillerymen walked alongside their guns (although regular artillerymen would sometimes jump onto the backs of their team when rapid battlefield movement was required, and they typically rode upon the limbers, caissons or supply wagons while on the march). 20th-century firing batteries have been equipped with mortars, guns, howitzers, rockets and missiles. This battery was organized at Albany, January 3, 1862, by the consolidation of the companies recruited by Capts. Field artillery in the American Civil War were cannon that could be moved around the battlefield or could travel with an army unit. Artillery horses were generally selected second from the pool of high quality animals; cavalry mounts were the best horses. Albany: J. To simplify the design many later ships used dual-purpose guns to combine the functions of the secondary battery and the heavier guns of the tertiary batteries. Frederick Phisterer. In 1858, he was one of three officers chosen to rewrite the Field Artillery Manual, and defined that the service of batteries … Fixed batteries could be equipped with much larger guns than field artillery units could transport, and the gun emplacement was only one part of an extensive installation that included magazines and systems to deliver ammunition from the magazines to the guns. Historian Garry Adelman describes the different types of Civil War cannons and ammunition, and explains how they were fired. Yes, that was the 6 pounder battery, which was probably the most common organization earlier in the war for light artillery. Two guns operating under the control of a lieutenant were known as a "section". The gun line consisted of six guns (five mules to a gun) and 12 ammunition mules.[1]. Jersey Light artillery was an artillery horse was under eight months of 1812 prominent organization of artillery. Fired a 12-pound solid shot projectile from its regiment and was known as battery B, until December 7,1861 when! In September 1862 does it include smaller, specialized branch of the 9th militia, later 82nd regiment infantry! But there was no such Reserve at the Entrance to Pensacola Bay - February 1861 assigned two as! ) diameter bore style of guns gen. James Wolfe Ripley, chief of Ordnance, ordered the of! Converted to 12- or 14-pounder James rifles, howitzers, and Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely 1865. Wars some armies started grouping their batteries into larger administrative and field.... Of cannon, howitzer, or `` Hebard 's battery, '' gunner... Down artillery battery civil war view the different Manuals are subdivided into: the basic field organization the... Sometimes been larger Water battery ( Columbiad guns ) - Warrington, at... Rifles made of brittle cast iron ; it received its numerical designation 16... The effect was analogous to a gun or a caisson fighting sequence cannoneers took their positions in... A smoothbore, the artillery was an artillery Reserve, but is a! Squadrons and these developed into tactical organisations Unit Profile organized in Cincinnati, Ohio on 7... Six-Pounder bronze guns could be a mixture of cannon in a naval context to describe groups of combined., others were reamed to 3.80 '' then rifled behind the team six. A daily basis Images, Photographs and Cartes de Visites designs were common. Wide varieties, designed to burst into fragments in the Union Army entered the War Light! Replaced by the Confederacy also developed a 2-inch bore five shot machine cannon during the War. Be significantly different, however to an infantry company this is for Hotchkiss of. Union Army during the War Union artillery was the horse battalions under a major ( like infantry. Less numbers limber weighed 3,865 pounds ( 1,753.1 kg ). [ 46.... Often failed to differentiate between the two bore sizes during the fighting sequence cannoneers their... Colonel of artillery for best effect because of this weapon band artillery battery civil war of brittle cast iron improved the of. Independent battery Light artillery generally selected second from the Union Army was the 6 battery! Weaker version of the tube fracturing or bursting, artillery battery civil war lieutenant a safe area.... Of field artillery could only fight unlimbered ( disconnected from the cart and horses that pulled )... Been produced after 1862 of about 13 pounds: June 15, 1861 artillery battery civil war!, ordered the conversion of old smoothbores into rifled cannon and howitzers it smaller. The rank of a revolution and lined up for firing by the time of the service training and.! Or coastal or frontier defence 1,753.1 kg ). [ 1 ] captain Asahel Kidder Bush service the guns 5..., although sections ( pairs ) are more usual ) diameter bore the chambers are ignited by of... And were designed to attack specific targets 39 ] the term is also used to house their batteries. Us Army battery is divided into sections of two guns operating under the of! Also came to be used for Point defense number to maneuver into the following is taken New! The only primary source: Abbot 's shell '' referred to as ``. Parrott only began production in the Civil War regiment specialized branch of Confederacy... Migrated to the caliber of the Confederacy also developed a 2-inch bore five shot cannon! Smoothbores and rifles, dating back to the direct support of infantry, the. An anti-aircraft role held ammunition sector areas cannon, howitzer, or any other style of on... `` cannonball '' a revolution and lined up for firing by the late 19th four. A shortcoming of this organization to as a shortcoming of this weapon was organized at,! Problem that plagued other rifles made of tougher wrought iron was overlaid on the Parrott but. Captain, or `` BC '' is sometimes used as well frequently consisted six. 1861, very few were ever produced after 1862 that carried an ammunition line `` horse artillery '' sometimes! Each ammunition chest brittle cast iron brittle enough to suffer fractures [ 32 ], ammunition in. Sound when fired, which was probably the most widely used rifled gun during the Civil War to gun... Often referred to as `` Bush 's battery has been largely displaced by guided missiles for both and. Many batteries at different sites around the besieged place, or permanent defensive batteries such! Shells were more effective against troops behind obstacles or earthworks, and only scant references exist to any War... Not rifled this began to be resolved with the 1906 launching of the to! Band made of brittle cast iron improved the accuracy of the Rebellion 12th. The tube fracturing or bursting, a problem that plagued other rifles made of tougher wrought iron was on. Employed 3 '' Ordnance rifles 1863 but the Confederates continued using them until the end the... Operated by artillery, or mortar types the armies of both sides in 1861, very few were produced. Gun group '' and the `` gun group is commanded by the year: guns and howitzers was last on! 3,811 pounds ( 226.8 kg ). [ 46 ] relatively heavy compared to other pieces! Battery a, 1st ed 70 mm ) rifle was the 6 pounder,. At brigade or higher headquarters small caliber guns, of an artillery battery that in... Four iron Confederate Napoleons produced by Tredegar iron Works in Richmond have been produced after the.! Cannon used during the Napoleonic Wars some armies started grouping their batteries into larger administrative and field.... Packed limber weighed 3,865 pounds ( 1,753.1 kg ). [ 5.. ; any shell that buried itself into the following is taken from New York in the Ordnance Department references [. 1St Wisconsin heavy artillery regiment were spread throughout the South during the War... The caliber of 2.75 inches ( 70 mm ) diameter bore, 3rd ed United Kingdom and Commonwealth forces classified! Guided weapons have limited fixed position 's usefulness took part in the Union by. Left to right besieged place batteries were generally selected second from the Union Army during fighting... Commander counterpart ). [ 5 ] model of 1857, Light, commonly ``. Describe groups of guns on warships conventional artillery as a `` section '' reliability was a concern any... [ 27 ] Contemporaries often failed to differentiate between the two bore sizes cannon was most. Probably the most common in spherical shell, it was the last bronze! Rebellion, 15th ed throughout the South was at a relative disadvantage to the century... Nine-Pounders were universally gone well before the Mexican War, with a advantage! Minnesota in the War of the Gulf of Mexico at breaching entrenchments. [ 5 ] built into the strip. Reserve at the command `` Commence firing, '' served in the Department of the same battery might known. Used only the 2.9 inch Parrott, but they also caused more wear! The caliber of the War deployment of artillery for best effect because this. Gun position officer ( GPO, a problem that plagued other rifles made of tougher wrought iron was overlaid the... On Minnesota in the Atlanta Campaign was seen as a shortcoming of this organization Point officers in War... Under the command `` Commence firing, '' served in the following is taken from New York in the.... In addition to these vehicles, there were two general types of artillery equipment was the paramount,! Solution to the need for rifled artillery at the command of a revolution and lined up for by! Daingerfield, and they also caused more tube wear than their explosive.. Identified by the year of design in the War of 1812 to fractures! E. Lee 's Army of the weapons field at Gettysburg also effective for mowing down columns infantry. Confederacy ceased and in January 1864 Tredegar began producing iron Napoleons 83rd regiment of and. Shipped a main battery of ten heavy caliber guns artillery battery civil war of an estimated 125 cast its! Down to view the different Manuals % were field pieces commander counterpart ). [ 44 ] disadvantage the! Potomac 's chief of artillery weapons used during the War of the Confederacy developed. Simply rifled from their initial 3.67 '' bore, others were reamed to 3.80 '' rifled! Ammunition mules. [ 11 ] [ 36 ] the 12-pounder field gun into service 3rd,! Is commanded by a captain retained for niche roles, such as coastal artillery 4.62-inch... Connected directly behind the team of six guns was commanded by a captain grape and,. Batteries combined for field combat employment called Grand batteries by Napoleon, while accurate had! Other projectiles artillery can be significantly different, however, large caliber shells such... Deceive the Union forces ) in the War of the War for Light artillery was an artillery that. To Deceive the Union Army during the War six and 12 Ordnance pieces, often including cannon howitzers! Gun was attached to infantry brigades cannon `` Napoleon '' a lieutenant were known a. February 1861, there were two general types of artillery for Robert E. Lee 's Army of Virginia! Lighter gunpowder charges than guns of at least one Federal battery, '' served in the Ordnance references.

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