apollo 16 lunar surface journal
We find both a significant deficit of solar cosmic ray (SCR)-produced 26 Al and a lack of SCR-produced 36 Cl in the top 3–5 g/cm 2 of the lunar regolith. Located at NASA headquarters, these transcripts are the work of Eric Jones, who has added explanatory notes and comments from the astronauts. Apollo Flight Journal, the excellent companion to the ALSJ by David Woods and the AFJ team;; Journal de la Surface Lunaire (en Français); Journal der Monderkundung (auf Deutsch); Apollo Image Gallery, quick access to high-res scans of mission photos, edited by Kipp Teague; Another thing that probably contributed to the formation of light-colored plains was: if you think about what would have been the logical course of eruptive events during mare formation, the major upwelling of mare basalt would have been preceded by a brief period of gas-charged debris eruption. 6 years ago | 23 views. Time and time again, astronauts got entangled. Astronaut Charles Duke During … Apollo Lunar Surface Journal . The Journal is edited by Eric M. Jones and Ken Glover and is intended as a resource for anyone wanting to know what happened during the missions and why. Lunar Module Eagle (LM-5) is the spacecraft that served as the crewed lunar lander of Apollo 11, which was the first mission to land humans on the Moon.It was named after bald eagle, which was featured prominently on the mission insignia.It flew from Earth to lunar orbit on the command module Columbia, and then was flown to the Moon on July 20, 1969, by astronaut … Apollo 16 (CSM Casper and LM Orion) Saturn V April 16-27, 1972 John W. Young Thomas K. Mattingly II Charles M. Duke, Jr. 11 days, 01 hour, 51 minutes Landing site: Descartes Highlands. It includes a corrected Lunar Surface Checklist; As-Flown CM/LM Stowage; MET Operator's Manual; Sample Catalog; A14 Pendulum; Training at Nördlinger Ries Crater; Apollo 14 Flag Deployment; Apollo 14 5-Day Report ( 1Mb PDF ) DPS Final Flight Eval. Final report Then came the helmets and gloves, a communications check, and, lastly, a check of the pressure integrity of the suits. That's always a surprise to geologists, when they can't explain what they found. acta; g.b. And yet, only eight years later, Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the Moon and, during the three and a half years that followed, they and five other Apollo crews proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that, even within the limits imposed by short stays, by limited equipment budgets, and by the lunar environment itself, a great deal of useful work could be done. When I was flying over the Farside of the Moon (on Apollo 17), you could see these light-colored plains, without any significant features in them, in the bottoms of large craters. A Delayed Landing; Life in the Cabin; Deploying the ALSEP; Flag Crater Traverse ; Stone Mountain; House Rock; Return to the LM; The Truth of Descartes. From Apollo Lunar Surface Journal: 143:13:46 4 O'Clock LM Pan, Start of EVA-2. Apollo Lunar Surface Journal - Apollo 16 Mission This link connects to transcripts of the radio transmissions of the Apollo 16 astronauts during their time on the lunar surface. S16-107-17420 (OF300) Charlie begins a pan taken north of the LM with this frame showing part of the U.S. flag on the left and the Solar Wind Collector (SWC) at center. Like its companion, the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (ALSJ), it is intended to be a resource for all those interested in the Apollo program, whether in a passing or scholarly capacity. Living and working on the Moon hadn't yet become an everyday experience; but the experiences of the early crews gave the later crews confidence in the LM and a sense of familiarity that allowed them to get some sleep. Virtually all of the rocks proved to be highland breccias. Astronaut Charles Duke During an Apollo 16 Lunar Surface EVA. John is doing some solo sampling while Charlie is about to use the penetrometer.] Like its companion, the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, it is intended to be a resource for all those interested in the Apollo program, whether in a passing or scholarly capacity. As usual, the pressure check showed that the suits were tight. Apollo 17 war der elfte bemannte Flug des Apollo-Programms und der bisher letzte bemannte Flug zum Mond.Die Mission startete am 7. Apollo Lunar Surface Journal . A walking astronaut would have had some trouble keeping a straight line in the rolling terrain and, on Apollo 17, Gene Cernan would put his Rover to the same practical use. From a pilot's point of view, a good mission was a mission without surprises, and as the day went on, Young and Duke proved once again the value of a well-trained crew. Apollo 16 LM Liftoff 01:26 UTC 14 April 1972 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a16/a16.launch.html#1753126 He became active in private business and as a Christian lay witness. Wiki info. From the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. 1:16. Search. happened during the missions and why. Apollo 16 Lunar Sample Information Catalog Part 1: 60015-62315 Publication: JSC-16904. Free for commercial use, no attribution required. The Journal is, in Neil Armstrong's words, a "living document" and is constantly being modified and updated. The United States Government retains a All rights reserved. That's really neat." If, like the other crews, Young and Duke found that visual navigation required a little experience, they certainly had no wasted moments once they were off the Rover and were ready to do some geology. High-resolution version of many of the lunar surface images are included. They had learned from watching Scott and Irwin and, at one point when Young decided that he hadn't parked the Rover in quite the best position, rather than take time climbing aboard, he and Duke simply picked it up and moved it. Pano1. Point it here a minute. Because both sites are so closely associated with the Imbrium impact, there remained a distinct possibility that, in highlands areas far from the Imbrium rim, different geologic processes and materials might have been important. Generally, the astronauts worked as a team when they were sampling; but here, as Duke worked around the rock, getting soil and chipping fragments off the boulder, Young was back at the Rover measuring the lunar magnetic field with a twin of the portable magnetometer carried by the Apollo 14 crew. non-exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the Last revised 05 June 2018. From the Apollo 16 Image Library: -e KSC-72P-114. In all, the process took about twenty minutes and, once Duke was suited, they hooked up the hoses which connected him with the LM supplies of oxygen and cooling water. Apollo 16's exploration of the lunar surface overturned a prevailing scientific opinion at the time that the lunar highlands were of volcanic origin.. And like any traveler, he wanted to bring home a special memory. Download Image of View of lunar surface at Apollo 16 station 11. The prior crews had tested equipment and procedures and, if the last two missions seemed a bit routine, it was only a mark of the maturity of the program. The crew consisted of Captain John W. Young, commander; Lt. Seconds later, as they were coming through 200 feet, Young rotated (yawed) the LM to the right and could see the shadow out his own window and use it to estimate his altitude and the sizes of the craters ahead. Now, with the suits inflated and both of them wearing backpacks, the situation was dramatically different. The Apollo Lunar Surface When you begin to partially melt the differentiated, olivine/pyroxene-dominated portion of the lunar mantle, there's still going to be a little bit of volatile material left, even though most of that would have fractionated out. Young and Duke next had to put on their backpacks, the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSSs) which contained a lithium hydroxide canister to remove CO2, supplies of oxygen and cooling water, and also the associated pumps and fans and the sublimator which actually got rid of the waste heat. urn:nasa:pds:context:instrument_host:spacecraft.a16a instrument_to_instrument_host urn:nasa:pds:apollodoc:a16doc:a16a_lsm_overview instrument_to_document Apollo 16 Preliminary Science Report, NASA SP-315, 622 pages, published by … Young's bag fell off during the outbound drive on EVA-3 - fortunately when it was empty - and, generally, they had to spend far more time than they would have liked tightening the harness straps. Because, nothing had sealed the crust yet. And, indeed, there may be volcanics there. There was one more mission to be flown; and the 17 crew, too, would have plenty of encounters with foot-grabbing cables. They were 42 cm tall and, with only a 15 by 22 cm base, were a bit top heavy. Consequently, they completed deployment of the Rover and, later, deployment of the ALSEP experiments with only a few problems. As Young and Duke ran, Ed Fendell - who operated the Rover TV camera remotely from Houston - steadily increased the zoom. South Ray crater is a small crater in the Descartes Highlands of the Moon photographed from the lunar surface by the astronauts of Apollo 16.The name of the crater was formally adopted by the IAU in 1973.. As they finally got close, they started down a final slope, their feet now hidden from view, and Schmitt was moved to say, " as our crew slowly sinks in the west...". Sign up. And that's the low melting fraction. Volcanics in the Lunar Highlands? That's bad. Zero-gravity made sure that he got thoroughly soaked in the sticky stuff and, as he later told CapCom Tony England: "Tony, I wouldn't give you two cents for that orange juice as a hair tonic; it mats it down completely.". And that would move up through a highly pulverized crust. In order to do the check, the astronauts first disconnected their LM oxygen hoses and connected the corresponding PLSS hoses. But, as Jack Schmitt was to learn on Apollo 17, SCBs were all too easy to knock over; and Duke wished out loud that he'd gone down to the local supermarket in Houston to get a shopping bag with a broad base and a couple of handles. Nonetheless, with proven equipment and procedures at hand, the last two missions presented splendid opportunities to clear up some of the major uncertainties that remained in our understanding of the Moon as a planet. During a minute of watching, they expected a drop of about 0.1 to 0.2 psi due to their own breathing and to the slow diffusion of oxygen into various nooks and crannies in the suits. For example, some members of the geologic community thought that the central highlands looked like certain terrains on Earth built by volcanism and hoped that the Apollo 16 crew would find samples to prove the point. (Readers interested in more details about such pre-mission hypotheses should consult Wilhelms' To a Rocky Moon, Heiken, Vaniman, and French's Lunar Sourcebook, and Jack Schmitt's discussion that concludes this Apollo 16 summary. There is a marvelous piece of film in the Apollo collection which shows people in the Backroom at Houston watching Young and Duke as they ran toward the boulder. They were looking for something different and they over-sensitized the 16 crew to volcanics. Reproduced with the permission of Journal editor Eric M. Jones. Man havde forventet at lande i et vulkansk område, men det viste … The journal presently covers eleven human flights of the Apollo program, relating the parts of the missions not on the lunar surface. Only Armstrong and Conrad landed more upright, and both had the advantage of young, lightly-cratered, mare sites. Prior to the pressure check, Young and Duke had been able to move a little, despite the small size of the cabin. They then pressurized the suits so that they could check for leaks before depressurizing the cabin. As described in prior postings, he organized geology training for the Apollo 13, 15, 16 and 17 LM crews that have made them competent as field geologists. Because Apollo was about to end, there was no new equipment to test, no new procedures to try. In soft, unpressurized suits, they were clumsy but still could turn and bend and reach for checklists and pieces of gear with relative ease. Like the Apollo 15 crew, Young and Duke had been through training as a backup crew for a landing mission (Apollo 13) and, so, for their own mission were able to spend about forty percent of their time training for the surface operations. When the mare lavas began to upwell and flow, they filled the basins and left the other seventy percent of the lunar surface uncovered. So Apollo16 astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr. came … I think the first name ever applied to them was Cayley. For Apollo 16, there were a couple of unplanned steps in the EVA preparations. Major advancements in surface wave testing over the past 2 decades have led researchers to revisit and re-analyze archived seismic records, particularly those involving measurements on the Moon. It's just they're hard to recognize because most of the material is debris taken up from the crust by whatever volcanic component was being evolved. Welcome to the Apollo Flight Journal, the companion to the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. L'équipage se compose de Pete Conrad (commandant), Richard Gordon et Alan Bean. As Charlie Duke said, "I really want to get out, but I think that discretion is the better part of valor, here. Via NASA History Division: Apollo 16 Lunar Surface Journal, Image Library, photo AS16-117-18841 (OF300) taken by astronaut Charles M. Duke on April 23, 1972 during the last EVA for Apollo 16 mission. 115:58:41 Here is the TV. Others had taken it farther than I have here. Charlie stopped, reattached the fallen package and, in this clips, resumes his climb up a small ridge toward what will be the ALSEP deployment site. After Apollo 16 there would be only one more. The scientists wanted samples of soil protected from the solar wind and, as Duke reached into the hollow with his shovel, kneeling so that he could reach back in as far as possible, he noted that, if you reach under a rock, "in West Texas, you get a rattlesnake; here, you get permanently shadowed soil." Young had to get as far over on his side of the cabin as he could so that Duke could reach the breakers and then turn to get the valves. Such an accident finally happened on Apollo 16 and, because the cable broke at the connector to the heat flow electronics package, there was no hope of a repair. Young's greatest concern was the fact that there were few shadows to show him where the level spots were in this rolling terrain; and it was only in the last few moments that he got some clues from the LM shadow. 38; no 10; pp. This was a big rock - "there's your basic house(-sized) rock," Duke said - and that was the name that stuck. Apollo 15 Journal: Figure Captions ... Apollo 15 LM Lunar Surface Checklist This checklist was scanned by Dave Hardin and Eric Jones; and converted to PDF by Ken Glover. ( 3Mb PDF ) Guid.Nav.Contrl.Performance ( 38Mb PDF ) Postflight Trajectory Analysis . But, eventually, a way around the problem was found; and both times during the night - after getting over the shock of being so rudely awakened - Duke assured himself that there was no new problem to worry about, reset the alarm, and then went back to sleep. (LPD) angle - a location on a set of window scribe marks - showed Young that they were headed for a point about 600 meters north and 400 meters west of their target. The Apollo 16 Lunar Module (LM) Orion landed between North Ray and South Ray craters on April 21, 1972. In order to improve Young's and Duke's sleep schedule, the third and final moonwalk of the mission was trimmed from seven hours to five. space phys., washington univ., st. louis, mo. Apollo 15 Lunar Sample Information Catalog Part 2: 15306-15468 … Apollo 16 Mission Overview. And, at North Ray, the pattern was even more striking. Because of the length of the EVA, each of the astronauts wore a drink bag inside his neck ring and had a tube he could suck on to get some refreshment. Apollo 16 would spend one less day in lunar orbit after surface exploration had been completed to afford the crew contingency time to compensate for any further problems and to conserve expendables. For the time being, they didn't actually turn the water on, but did let oxygen flow into the suit and out the neck and wrist rings to provide some cooling. They were confident in their ability to get up again. Højdepunkter. The navigation system was proving an invaluable aid. Duke was working on fairly level ground and he found that, if he leaned sideways, he could place the bag upright on the ground and, later, put samples in it. Page … The Apollo 16 Flight Journal. The Journal is intended as a resource for anyone wanting to know what happened during the missions and why. transcript of all recorded conversations between the lunar surface Like the Surface Journal, it is intended to be a resource for all those interested in the Apollo flights to the Moon, whether in a passing or scholarly capacity. There were no signs of the young volcanics that some geologists had hoped for. Then Duke ducked to get his head into the neck ring and, finally put his arms into the sleeves. From the Apollo 16 Video Library. Before they had gone more than a kilometer north of the LM, Young and Duke noticed that the frequency of rocks and small craters had dropped considerably. Astronaut Charles Duke hammers a core tube into the ground until it meets a rock and won't go any further. Sie wurde, einschließlich des primären Ziels, der fünften bemannten Landung auf dem Erdmond, erfolgreich abgeschlossen. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the United States was engaged in the Cold War, a geopolitical rivalry with the Soviet Union. Their confidence in themselves and in their equipment showed up in the relative ease with which they worked on the hillside. From the Apollo 16 Video LIbrary Video and text link https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a16/a16.sta1.html#1240400 While John started a pan … As Young had done at one point during the second EVA, Duke went back to the Rover, got an empty Sample Collection Bag, and set it down on the ground next to the boulder. Of course, such a mission was never in the cards and, indeed, by the time of Apollo 16, NASA was already folding up its lunar tent. In the morning, once they'd gotten the hammocks stowed and had eaten, they then began the laborious process of getting ready to go out. They started with Duke. The lack of scientific surprises was also matched by the relative lack of operational surprises. 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